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<msonsuz> Someone recommended me Ubuntu as a good distribution. Tried to make this article beginnersfriendly as possible. This is also a placeholder to get back if I forgot how I dit it :) If you can improve please do. If you have questions ask at techdesk100 (at) hotmail (dot) com.


Extra information Edit

Because I use mingw cygwin colinux qemu etc. I made a folder in my c drive called Linux and which has subfolders for each distribution.

c:\Linux 
- Colinux
- Cygwin
- Distro (the folder with image files for colinux/qemu/distribtion iso's)
- Mingw
- Qemu
...

Link Edit

TOOLS

WEBSITES

Qemu to make an ubuntu-desktop install image Edit

There is no (easy) way to install Ubuntu from a cd image to a file using colinux. So I needed an emulator which had a gui, could use easily without doing to much work and where you could convert the file into colinux image. In the article Converting Distributions there is an example how to convert a qemu image to colinux image. For this reasons I use qemu to make an installation.


PREPARATION

  • Download Ubuntu 6.10 cd image from Ubuntu and put in Distro folder (C:\Linux\Distro)
  • Download Qemu from most recent windows port here is official site
  • Extract qemu zipfile from windows port to c:\Linux\Qemu
  • Go to the command prompt (Windows XP => Start / Run / CMD)
  • make an image to install Ubuntu (minimal 2048MB but you need more while installing) in dos by typing (3gb would be 1024*1024*1024*3 + 63*512)
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\qemu_ubuntu_3gb 3221257728
  • make a image for a 512mb swap file in dos by typing (512mb would be 1024*1024*512 + 63*512)
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\qemu_swap_512mb 536903168
  • Open notepad, create next batchfile, change settings like qemu_dir and name of iso file and save it (C:\Linux\Qemu\start_installation.bat)
@ECHO OFF

set qemu_dir=C:\Linux\Distro
set hd=%qemu_dir%\qemu_ubuntu_3gb
set swap=%qemu_dir%\qemu_swap_512mb
set cdrom=%qemu_dir%\DIST-Ubuntu-6.10.iso
set mem=256

qemu -hda %hd% -hdb %swap% -cdrom %cdrom% -m %mem% -boot d -L .
pause
  • start up start_installation.bat and install Ubuntu with the second drive a swap drive

INSTALLATION

Here are some hints what to choose in the setup. Setup is really straightforward so it should give you not much trouble.

  • When the desktop appears doublepress Install icon.
  • Screen: Welcome
choose your language press next
  • Screen: Where are you?
choose your timezone
  • Screen: Keyboard Layout
choose your keyboard (default U.S. English U.S. English)
  • Screen: Who are you?
fill in your info
  • Screen: Select a disk
select manually edit partition table
  • Screen: Prepare partitions
create new partitions
choose /dev/hda
	choose Create as: primary partition
	choose Filesystem: ext3
choose /dev/hdb

choose "Create as:" primary partition choose "Filesystem:" linux-swap

  • Screen: Prepare mount points
Should say something like
Mount Point	size	Partition					Reformat
swap		510mb	Partition 1 Disc IDE/ATA 2 (Primary) [hdb1]	v
/		3GB	Partition 1 Disc IDE/ATA 1 (Primary) [hda1]	v
  • Screen: Ready to install
press install

CONVERTING TO COLINUX

I found this on one of the wikipages.

  • download and install unxutils I found a link here
  • go to the command prompt (Windows XP => Start / Run / CMD)
  • go to your distro folder
cd \Linux\Distro
  • convert qemu ubuntu image to colinux image
dd if=qemu_ubuntu_3gb of=ubuntu_3gb.img bs=512 skip=63
  • you only need the file ubuntu_3gb.img the other 2 files (qemu_swap_512mb and qemu_ubuntu_3gb) can be removed (you could also save it for temp backup)

install colinux and make image bootable Edit

TO KNOW

I use an extra image disk which I use between different distributions as a second disk.

At the moment I use version 0.8.0 with kernel 2.6.17 and has Kernel with hotplug enabled (for udev). Before you start please check if there is a newer version of the colinux kernel at the testing folder of henry nestler.

There are 2 types of network connections: TAP connection and a bridged connection(WinPCap). I normally use TAP with Fedora, but Ubuntu did not recognize the TAP. So in this case I will show usage of TAP and winPCap. For more information look at Network

TAP driver creates an TAPconnection with an icon in Networkconnections. When you setup you networkcard using TAP connection goes through this TAP. This means you can only reach this connection from the host PC and not from another one. If you want to connect the internet using colinux you just make a shared connection from you internet connection (wlan or lan card) to the TAPconnection.

Bridged connection is a shared connection with the network card (lan or wlan). The colinux machine is visible from outside the host PC. Colinux will also have another IP adress as the host PC. It is like two machines using the same card are connection to the internet. Both machines will ask for an IP adress and for example the router will give both a different IP.

INSTALLATION AND PREPARATION

When you have downloaded the newest version of colinux start installing it. I use normally the options Native Windows Linux Console, colinux Virtual Ethernet Driver (TAP-Win32) and colinux Bridged Ethernet (WinPCap). If you want to use WinPCap please install the winPcap driver. When asked for a folder I use C:\Linux\Colinux.


  • Create an extra image 1gb file by using the following command in the dosprompt (windows XP):
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\ext3_disk_1gb.img 1073741824 
  • Create a swap image 512 mb because I will use 256 mb memory by using the following command in the dosprompt (windows XP):
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\swap_512mb 536870912
  • Use noexecute to set the correct options. IF NOT DONE CORRECT PC WILL HANG AND YOU HAVE TO RESTART.
  • Go to Control Panel=>Network connections
  • Rename the LAN connection to LAN and the TAP connection to TAP.
  • right click on LAN connection and press properties
  • go to tab advanced, enable Allow other users to connect through this computer's internet connection and choose if applicable TAP
  • give the TAP connection a static IP 10.0.0.10 and subnetmask 255.255.255.0
  • Create a colinux.conf file in the Distro folder for example C:\Linux\Distro\ubuntu-desktop_6_10.conf:
############################################
# MAKE SURE THERE IS AN EXTRA LINE AT THE END
# OF THE BATCH FILE
#
# initrd should only be used at first start
# to install kernel modules for example when
# you upgrade your colinux
############################################

############################################
# DEFAULT
############################################
# set your runlevel to text-only mode or graphical mode
# root=/dev/hda1 fastboot 1 (single-user mode)
# root=/dev/hda1 fastboot 3 (text-only mode)
# root=/dev/hda1 fastboot 5 (graphic mode)
############################################

kernel=vmlinux
initrd=initrd.gz
mem=256
root=/dev/hda1 fastboot 5

############################################
# Drives
############################################
#cobd0=C:\Linux\Distro\image
#hda1=:cobd0
############################################

hda1=\DosDevices\C:\Linux\Distro\ubuntu_3gb.img
hda2=\DosDevices\C:\Linux\Distro\ext3_disk_1gb.img
hdb1=\DosDevices\C:\Linux\Distro\swap_512mb

############################################
# Ethernet
############################################
#eth0=slirp,00:ff:00:00:00:00
#eth0=pcap-bridge,"LAN", 00:ff:00:00:00:00
#eth0=tuntap,TAP,00:ff:00:00:00:00
############################################

eth0=tuntap,"TAP",00:ff:00:00:00:00
eth1=pcap-bridge,"LAN",00:ff:00:00:00:01
# please leave this as last line. Otherwise last of macadress goes as input for boot
  • Create a batch file in the colinux folder for example C:\Linux\Colinux\start_ubuntu-desktop.bat:
@echo off
colinux-daemon.exe --install-driver
colinux-daemon.exe @"c:\Linux\Distro\ubuntu-desktop_6_10.conf" -t nt
colinux-daemon.exe --remove-driver
pause
  • start the batchfile start_ubuntu-desktop.bat so colinux starts(If it does not start it will give an error message. Maybe you typed something wrong).
  • Xwindows will crash when starting up but you can ignore that and continue in runlevel 3. (at #XDMCP this problem wil be solved)
  • login with your username and pass for head user which you used before in setup Screen: Who are you?
  • if you want to login with root you can make a password for root. Otherwise when using sudo give the same password as the head user.
sudo passwd
  • make swap file system
sudo mkswap /dev/hdb1
  • add swap to Ubuntu (also done in fstab)
sudo swapon /dev/hdb1
  • make sure that swap is added using free
sudo free
  • or using swapon
sudo swapon -s
  • format extra image to ext3
mkfs -t ext3 /dev/hda2
  • edit /etc/fstab
# this is what I changed mine fstab to
proc 		/proc	proc 	defaults 	0 	0
/dev/hda1 	/ 	ext3 	defaults 	1 	1
/dev/hda2 	/mnt 	ext3 	defaults 	1 	1
/dev/hdb1 	swap 	swap 	defaults 		0 	0

NETWORKING

setup interfaces

  • edit /etc/network/interfaces
# File: /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auth eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 10.0.0.100
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 10.0.0.10

auth eth1
iface eth1 inet dhcp

auth eth2
iface eth2 inet dhcp

auth ath0
iface ath0 inet dhcp

auth wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
  • to know your ip-adress use the following command
ifconfig

DNS

DNS Updates automatically (DHCP). But if you want to set it manually:

  • to use a dns server edit /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 111.111.111.111

UPDATE WITH APT-GET When I first tried to install things like openssh-server it said it could not find it. But after running this command everything worked fine.

sudo apt-get update
  • To get the newest updates us the following command
sudo apt-get upgrade


SSH TO UBUNTU-DESKTOP

  • install an ssh server (don't forget to update apt-get before using following command)
sudo apt-get install openssh-server
  • now you can ssh your ubuntu-desktop using the IP-adress from eth1

compress image file smallest possible Edit

Ok after you've done all this you could start to make a rar file so you can if you do something wrong just unpack the rar file and you start all over. (found at the mail list). It can become big because the empty space is not really zero so your compressor makes the file big. What you do is you make a file which has null characters that is as big as the empty space and remove the file

  • start with another image file and set the image you want to compress in the xml conf file in this example hda2
  • mount the image into /mnt
mount /mnt /dev/hda2
  • remove colinux modules
rm -rf /mnt/lib/modules/*-co-*
  • remove wtmp
rm -f /mnt/var/log/wtmp
  • remove all from tmp
rm -rf /mnt/tmp/*
  • clean apt get
chroot /mnt
sudo apt-get clean
exit
  • or clean yum
chroot /mnt
yum clean all
exit
  • get the number of available space in mb
chroot /mnt
df -m
 #Filesystem	1M-blocks	Used	Available	Use%	Mounted on
 #/dev/hda2	1984		750	1132M		40%	/mnt
exit
  • make a file filled with zero which is almost as big as the empty space in hda2. For count do the available size of hda2 minus 2
dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/foobar bs=1M count=1130
  • remove the zero file
rm /mnt/foobar
  • clean /mnt/root/.bash_history
  • Unmount the image from /mnt
umount /mnt
  • change mountcount etc
tune2fs -c 0 /dev/hda2
tune2fs -T 20070101 /dev/hda2

If you compress it now, it will become much smaller.

XDMCP Edit

As you already know x-windows starts crashing every time you start ubuntu-desktop. This problem we will solve here by disabling the opening of a local window. For the XDMCP client I use XMING and for Desktop Environment I use KDE. (but you can use your own like winx-32 x-deep32 and GNOME).

  • edit in /etc/gdm/gdm.conf to disable opening local display and enabling xdmcp

before

[xdmcp]
Enable=false
[servers]
0=Standard

after

[xdmcp]
Enable=true
[servers]
#0=Standard
  • edit in /etc/gdm/gdm.conf if you want to be able to login as root

before

[security]
AllowRoot=false
AllowRemoteRoot=false

after

[security]
AllowRoot=true
AllowRemoteRoot=true
  • restart xwindows
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart
  • create an xlaunch file by
    • starting xlaunch and choosing the options below and at the last screen choose save configuration
Display Settings	One window
Display number 	0
Start Xming		Open Session via XDMCP
Connect to host	the IP adress from eth1 using winPCap
Clipboard		enabled
    • or create file xming.xlaunch on windows host (don't forget to change the IP-adress)
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<XLaunch 
	xmlns="http://www.straightrunning.com/XmingNotes" 
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"  
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.straightrunning.com/XmingNotes xlaunch.xsd" 
	WindowMode="Windowed" 
	ClientMode="XDMCP"
	XDMCPHost="192.168.1.2"
	Display="0" 
	Clipboard="true" />
  • doublepress xming.xlaunch to start xming and voila you have your xwindows

For SLIRP based networking, it is convenient to use the localhost IP 127.0.0.1, instead of the actual IP, to connect to the colinux host. Especially useful for laptop users whose IP changes frequently.

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