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Fedora8MinimalChroot

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<msonsuz> Fedora 8 is released. A new page is needed. If you can improve please do.

Extra information Edit

Because I use mingw cygwin colinux qemu etc. I made a folder in my c drive called Linux and which has subfolders for each distribution.

c:\Linux 
- Colinux
- Cygwin
- Distro (the folder with image files for colinux/qemu/distribtion iso's)
- Mingw
- Qemu
...

Link Edit

TOOLS

WEBSITES

Qemu to make an minimal install image Edit

There is no (easy) way to install Fedora Core from a DVD image to a file using colinux. So I needed an emulator which had a gui, could be easily used without doing too much work, and where you could convert the file into colinux image. In the article Converting Distributions there is an example how to convert a qemu image to colinux image. For this reasons I use qemu to make an installation.


PREPARATION

  • Download Fedora Core 8 image from Fedora and put in Distro folder (C:\Linux\Distro)
  • Download Qemu from most recent windows port here is official site
  • To speed things up you can install Kqemu-1.3.0pre11 installer
  • Extract qemu zipfile from windows port to c:\Linux\Qemu
  • Go to the command prompt (Windows XP => Start / Run / CMD)
  • make a image to install fedora core (minimal 700MB) in dos by typing (2gb would be 1024*1024*1024*2 + 63*512)
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\qemu_fc8_min_2gb 2147515904
  • make a image for a 512mb swap file in dos by typing (512mb would be 1024*1024*512 + 63*512)
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\qemu_swap_512mb 536903168
  • Open notepad, create next batchfile, change settings like qemu_dir and name of iso file and save it (C:\Linux\Qemu\start_installation.bat)
@ECHO OFF

set qemu_dir=C:\Linux\Distro
set hd=%qemu_dir%\qemu_fc8_min_2gb
set swap=%qemu_dir%\qemu_swap_512mb
set cdrom=%qemu_dir%\FC-8_i386.ISO
set mem=256

qemu -hda %hd% -hdb %swap% -cdrom %cdrom% -m %mem% -boot d -L .
pause
  • start up start_installation.bat and install fedora core with the second drive a swap drive

INSTALLATION

For the installation I recommend the following steps. I use text modus where you use tab,space, arrows and enter to choose options and this steps explains text modus. With ctrl+tab you can get out the window.

  • first screen will ask in what modem you want to startup. To make the installation go faster you can choose the (text mode)
  • and press enter (if you want to install in gui mode with mouse just choose first option)
  • you can skip dvd testing if you want to
  • press yes when asked to erase all data for hda and hdb
  • choose create custom layout and press ok
  • choose free space under /dev/sda press new and choose following options
Mount point 		/ 
File System type 	ext3
Allowable drives 	only sda1
Fill all available space selected
  • choose free space under /dev/sdb press new and choose following options
mount point 		will become <Not Applicable> if you change the File System type to swap
File system Type 	swap
Allowable drives 	only hdb selected
Fill all available space selected
  • If done correctly you will see
Devices	Start	End	Size	Type	Mount point
/dev/sda
	sda1	1	261	2047M	ext3	/
/dev/sdb
	sdb1	1	65	509M	swap
  • For Bootloader configuration choose Use Grub Bootloader
  • When asked where to install the boot loader choose /dev/sda1 First sector of boot partition
  • When you get to Package Selection Disable the 3 options and enable Customize software selection and press OK
  • In Package Group Selection disable everything.
  • Fedora will check dependencies (will take a long time (10 minutes) so go get some herbal tea or whatever).
  • Press OK and the installation will start. (took me 20 minutes so get some more tea)
  • When done installing press Reboot and close Qemu.
  • Remove KQemu from Start=>Control panel=>Software.


CONVERTING TO COLINUX

I found this on one of the wikipages.

  • download and install unxutils I found a link here
  • go to the command prompt (Windows XP => Start / Run / CMD)
  • go to your distro folder
cd \Linux\Distro
  • convert qemu fedora core image to colinux image
dd if=qemu_fc8_min_2gb of=fc8_min_2gb.img bs=512 skip=63
  • you only need the file fc8_min_2gb.img the other 2 files (qemu_swap_512mb and qemu_fc8_min_2gb) can be removed (you could also save it for temp backup)


install colinux and make image bootable Edit

TO KNOW

I use an extra image disk which I use between different distributions as a second disk.

With Fedora Core 5 I had a problem with udev and hotplugin which gave problems with ssh etc. This was because the udev version did not support the older colinux kernel so I solved it by downloading and installing manually an older version. Thanks to Aguspiza which made a comment about using an older version of the colinux kernel, which was correct. Now I use the most recent version which is version 0.8.0 with kernel 2.6.22 and has Kernel with hotplug enabled (for udev). Before you start please check if there is a newer version of the colinux kernel at the testing folder of henry nestler.

There are 2 types of network connections: TAP connection and a bridged connection(WinPCap). I normally use tap but now will use them both to show examples. For more information look at Network

TAP driver creates an TAPconnection with an icon in Networkconnections. When you setup you networkcard using TAP connection goes through this TAP. This means you can only reach this connection from the host PC and not from another one. If you want to connect the internet using colinux you just make a shared connection from you internet connection (wlan or lan card) to the TAPconnection.

Bridged connection is a shared connection with the network card (lan or wlan). The colinux machine is visible from outside the host PC. Colinux will also have another IP adress as the host PC. It is like two machines using the same card are connection to the internet. Both machines will ask for an IP adress and for example the router will give both a different IP. I had a problem using my WLAN card with bridged because of a disabled option in an older kernel. With LAN it did work. Did not try it with the newer kernel.

INSTALLATION AND PREPARATION

When you have downloaded the newest version of colinux start installing it. I use normally the options Native Windows Linux Console, colinux Virtual Ethernet Driver (TAP-Win32) and colinux Bridged Ethernet (WinPCap). If you want to use WinPCap please install the winPcap driver. When asked for a folder I use C:\Linux\Colinux.


  • Create an extra image 1gb file by using the following command in the dosprompt (windows XP):
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\ext3_disk_1gb.img 1073741824 
  • Create a swap image 512 mb because I will use 256 mb memory by using the following command in the dosprompt (windows XP):
fsutil file createnew c:\Linux\Distro\swap_512mb 536870912
  • Use noexecute to set the correct options. IF NOT DONE CORRECT PC WILL HANG AND YOU HAVE TO RESTART.
  • Go to Control Panel=>Network connections
  • Rename the LAN connection to LAN and the TAP connection to TAP.
  • right click on LAN connection and press properties
  • go to tab advanced, enable Allow other users to connect through this computer's internet connection and choose if applicable TAP
  • give the TAP connection a static IP 10.0.0.10 and subnetmask 255.255.255.0
  • Create a colinux.conf file in the Distro folder for example C:\Linux\Distro\colinux_fc8_minimal.conf:
############################################
# MAKE SURE THERE IS AN EXTRA LINE AT THE END
# OF THE BATCH FILE
#
# initrd should only be used at first start
# to install kernel modules for example when
# you upgrade your colinux
############################################

############################################
# DEFAULT
############################################
# set your runlevel to text-only mode or graphical mode
# root=/dev/hda1 fastboot 1 (single-user mode)
# root=/dev/hda1 fastboot 3 (text-only mode)
# root=/dev/hda1 fastboot 5 (graphic mode)
############################################

kernel=vmlinux
initrd=initrd.gz
mem=256
root=/dev/sda1 fastboot 5

############################################
# Drives
############################################
#cobd0=C:\Linux\Distro\image
#hda1=:cobd0
############################################

sda1=\DosDevices\C:\Linux\Distro\fc8_min_2gb.img
sda2=\DosDevices\C:\Linux\Distro\ext3_disk_1gb.img
sdb1=\DosDevices\C:\Linux\Distro\swap_512mb

############################################
# Ethernet
############################################
#eth0=slirp,00:ff:00:00:00:00
#eth0=pcap-bridge,"LAN", 00:ff:00:00:00:00
#eth0=tuntap,TAP,00:ff:00:00:00:00
############################################

eth0=tuntap,"TAP",00:ff:00:00:00:00
eth1=pcap-bridge,"LAN",00:ff:00:00:00:01
# please leave this as last line. Otherwise last of macadress goes as input for boot
  • Create a batch file in the colinux folder for example C:\Linux\Colinux\start_fc8_minimal.bat:
@echo off
colinux-daemon.exe --install-driver
colinux-daemon.exe @"c:\Linux\Distro\colinux_fc8_minimal.conf" -t nt
colinux-daemon.exe --remove-driver
pause
  • start the batchfile start_fc8_minimal.bat so colinux starts(If it does not start it will give an error message. Maybe you typed something wrong).
  • login with your username and pass
  • format swap
mkswap -c -v1 -L SWAP /dev/sdb1
  • format extra image to ext3
mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sda2
  • edit /etc/fstab
# this is what I changed mine fstab to
/dev/sda1	/		ext3	defaults 	1 1
/dev/sda2	/mnt		ext3	defaults	1 1
devpts		/dev/pts 	devpts	gid=5,mod=620	0 0
tmpfs		/dev/shm	tmpfs	defaults	0 0
proc		/proc		proc	defaults	0 0
sysfs		/sys		sysfs	defaults	0 0
/dev/sdb1	swap		swap	defaults	0 0


NETWORKING setup eth0

  • edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# File: /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=10.0.0.100
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=10.0.0.10
#HWADDR=00:ff:00:00:00:00
  • Now you can from windows ssh your colinux using 10.0.0.100

setup eth1

  • edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 if it not exists make one
# File: /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg-eth1
DEVICE=eth1
ONBOOT=no
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
#HWADDR=00:ff:00:00:00:01

When you start colinux it will start the eth1 by using command ifup eth1 and will get an IP adress from the router where the LAN adapter gets his ip-adress. It will be a different IP-adress. With ifconfig eth1 you can find out the IP adress and ssh it from another pc.

DNS

  • to use a dns server edit /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 111.111.111.111


UPDATE WITH YUM/SMART

Normally I use yum because it is given as default. Aguspiza gave as alternative Smart. I looked at is and it has its advantages, most important speedup. After Fedora 7 Yum has improved in speed, so I am leaving out Smart. For smart see Fedora 6.

YUM

  • gui version for in x-windows
yum install pirut
  • update existing installation
yum update
  • after update clean temp files
yum clean all
  • if you want to change settings for the repository go to /etc/yum.repos.d/
  • to install something

yum install package


making it colinux proof Edit

When booting you get some failures. Here you can find the solutions.

error: setting default font (latarcyrheb-sun16): putfont: PIO_FONT: Function not implemented

  • Rename the program /bin/setfont to /bin/setfont.old
mv /bin/setfont /bin/setfont.old
  • Create a new script file /bin/setfont with condition for coLinux
#!/bin/bash

if ! uname -r | grep -q -e "-co-"
then
	/bin/setfont.old $@
fi
  • and make it executable
chmod +x /bin/setfont

error: hwclock is unable to get I/O port access: the iopl(3) call failed.

  • coLinux don't allow hwclock. Edit file /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit, locate the line with hwclock and add a condition for colinux:

before

[-x /sbin/hwclock ] && /sbin/hwclock $CLOCKFLAGS

after

if ! uname -r | grep -q -e "-co-"
then
	[-x /sbin/hwclock ] && /sbin/hwclock $CLOCKFLAGS
fi
  • Edit file /etc/rc.d/init.d/halt, locate the line with hwclock and write a condition for colinux:

before

[-x /sbin/hwclock ] && action $"Syncing hardware clock to system time" /sbin/hwclock $CLOCKFLAGS

after

if ! uname -r | grep -q -e "-co-"
then
	[-x /sbin/hwclock ] && action $"Syncing hardware clock to system time" /sbin/hwclock $CLOCKFLAGS
fi


compress image file smallest possible Edit

Ok after you've done all this you could start to make a rar file so you can if you do something wrong just unpack the rar file and you start all over. (found at the mail list). It can become big because the empty space is not really zero so your compressor makes the file big. What you do is you make a file which has null characters that is as big as the empty space and remove the file

  • start with another image file and set the image you want to compress in the xml conf file in this example sda2
  • mount the image into /mnt
mount /mnt /dev/sda2
  • remove colinux modules
rm -rf /mnt/lib/modules/*-co-*
  • remove wtmp
rm -f /mnt/var/log/wtmp
  • remove all from tmp
rm -rf /mnt/tmp/*
  • clean apt get
rm -rf /mnt/src/var/state/apt/lists/ayo.freshrpms.*
rm -rf /mnt/src/var/cache/apt/*.bin
  • or clean yum
chroot /mnt
yum clean all
exit
  • get the number of available space in mb
chroot /mnt
df -m
 #Filesystem	1M-blocks	Used	Available	Use%	Mounted on
 #/dev/sda2	1984		750	1132M		40%	/mnt
exit
  • make a file filled with zero which is almost as big as the empty space in hda2. For count do the available size of sda2 minus 2
dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/foobar bs=1M count=1130
  • remove the zero file
rm /mnt/foobar
  • clean /mnt/root/.bash_history
  • Unmount the image from /mnt
umount /mnt
  • change mountcount etc
tune2fs -c 0 /dev/sda2
tune2fs -T 20090101 /dev/sda2

If you compress it now, it will become much smaller.

VNC (external Xwindows) login Edit

You do not have to start Fedora 8 in GUI mode (colinux.conf file runlevel 5) For the VNC client I use RealVNC and for Desktop Environment I use KDE. (but you can use your own like winx-32 tightvnc and GNOME).


Another usefull link

  • startup eth1 or have eth0 in shared mode
ifup eth1
  • get xwindows
    • get minimal kde
yum install kdebase
    • or get full kde
yum groupinstall "KDE (K Desktop Environment)"
    • or get full GNOME (with setup xdmcp you are for now on your own/Maybe somebody could add to this)
yum groupinstall "GNOME Desktop Environment"
    • In Fedora 8 the fonts are not installed automatically using dependencies.
yum install xorg-x11-fonts-Type1
  • install the vnc server
yum install vnc-server
  • first time create password and files
vncserver
  • edit in your home dir /home/user/.vnc/xstartup or root dir /root/.vnc/xstartup to let automatically start KDE otherwise you will get gray screen

before

#!/bin/sh

# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:
# unset SESSION_MANAGER
# exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup
[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
vncconfig -iconic &
xterm -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
twm &

after

#!/bin/sh

# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:
# unset SESSION_MANAGER
# exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

#[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup
#[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
#xsetroot -solid grey
#vncconfig -iconic &
#xterm -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
#twm &
startkde &
#gnome-session &
#startxfce4 &


SETUP FIREWALL VNC SERVER


Each VNC server instance listens on port 5900 plus the display number on which the server runs. For example: Display 1 5901 Display 2 5902 etc.

  • start firewall configure tool
system-config-firewall-tui
  • in Customize->Other ports use the correct portnumber.For the automatic startup I use display 1 which uses port 5901
5901:tcp
  • restart xwindows
shutdown -r now


STARTUP VNC SERVER AUTOMATICALLY


  • edit in /etc/sysconfig/vncservers

before

#VNCSERVERS="2:myusername"
#VNCSERVERARGS[2]="-geometry 800x600 -nolisten tcp -nohttpd -localhost"

after, use your own username instead of root

#VNCSERVERS="2:myusername"
#VNCSERVERARGS[2]="-geometry 800x600 -nolisten tcp -nohttpd -localhost"
VNCSERVERS="1:root"
VNCSERVERARGS[1]="-geometry 1024x768"
  • make the VNC server start on boot
chkconfig vncserver on
  • restart colinux
shutdown -r now
  • now you can reach your VNC server with your VNC client using the IP of colinux with the displaynumber.
10.0.0.100:1


OR STARTUP VNC SERVER MANUALLY


  • start vnc server
vncserver -geometry 1024x768
  • first time it will ask for a password
  • It wil say at which display vnc server is started. For example display :1
New 'localhost.localdomain:1 (root)' desktop is localhost.localdomain:1
  • start your vnc client and fill in the IP of colinux with the displaynumber.
10.0.0.100:1


VNC Server commands


  • restart VNC server
service vncserver restart
  • kill VNC server for a certain display, i.e. display :2
vncserver -kill :2


APACHE with PHP/MySQL Edit

Installing a webserver is really really easy

start internet

ifup eth1
APACHE

install apache

yum install httpd

make apache start at boot

chkconfig httpd on
PHP

install php

yum install php
MYSQL

install mysql-server

yum install mysql-server

install to be able to use mysql from apache

yum install php-mysql

make mysql start at boot

chkconfig mysqld on

set password for mysql (change the pass123 into something else)

mysqladmin -u root password 'pass123'


clean up

yum clean all

restart colinux

shutdown -h now

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